In the nineteenth century the Kingdom of Hawaii was recognized internationally as a sovereign and independent country, with treaties with every major nation at that time, including several with the United States. In 1893, a group of mostly white American businessmen, backed by U.S. Marines, illegally overthrew the constitutional monarchy of Hawaii and instituted their own oligarchy. Although President Cleveland condemned the act and called for the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy, in 1898 President McKinley pushed through a joint resolution of annexation, rather than the required treaty, in violation of international law and the United States Constitution. After 1900 Hawaii was a territory of the U.S., until the statehood vote in 1959, but today many challenge the legitimacy of this vote and statehood itself. In 1993, the U.S. Congress and President Clinton officially apologized for the overthrow, acknowledging the illegality of it and the annexation, and recognizing the inherent sovereignty and right to self-determination of Native Hawaiians. Today the Hawaiian sovereignty movement is highly active, and even mainstream political leaders recognize that it is not a matter of if, but when and in what form sovereignty will come to the islands. Some advocate a nation-within-a-nation concept similar to American Indians or other integrated models, but a growing number favor the restoration of total independence for Hawaii. This political movement parallels the cultural renaissance, and the struggle for other Hawaiian rights, much of which centers on land and water, which are sacred to the Hawaiian people as the caretakers of these islands. It is important for visitors to have some awareness of the history and the current struggles, and to respect the fact that Hawaii is not like other American states. The websites linked here offer a range of in-depth perspectives on sovereignty and self-determination in Hawaii.
The Hawaiian Kingdom
Information on the kingdom, constitution, territory, occupation, neutrality, trade, nationality and more, providing by the Acting Cabinet Council
Hawaiian Issues Weblog
Regularly updated links to articles and current events links, with commentary.
Hawaiian Society of Law and Politics (HSLP)
A student organization at UH-Manoa that applies Public International Law and applicable theories to Hawaiian history. HSLP promotes the development of curricula on the subject of Hawaiian statehood under international law for the University of Hawai`i, publishes the Hawaiian Journal of Law and Politics, and hosts related conferences and other events.
Education regarding Hawaiian history & sovereignty, featuring the case of Larsen v. Hawaiian Kingdom at the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Hawaii - Independent & Sovereign
Extensive information on the restoration of Hawaiian independence, with legal foundation, news articles archive, and much more (see essay on tourism)
Na Maka O Ka Aina
Video catalog on history and sovereignty - "Act of War" and "We Are Who We Were" are particularly important for visitors to watch to learn the true history of the overthrow and annexation respectively, and for those interested in more in-depth study check out the "Hawaiian Kingdom Law" series.
Perspectives on Hawaiian Sovereignty
Essays on Independence, including historical/international analysis, historical documents, education, environment, society, health, citizenship, and economics of an independent Hawai`i
Office of Hawaiian Affairs Federal Recognition Page
A state agency providing programs for the betterment of the lives of the Hawaiian people, seeks federal recognition of Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiian Advisory Council
An educational and legal support group for Native Hawaiians, with an emphasis on water rights issues
Kingdom of Hawai`i
Seeks the reinstatement and restoration of the Kingdom of Hawai`i, with historical, common law and international documents.
Kingdom of Hawai`i
Seeks the reinstatement and restoration of the Kingdom of Hawai`i based on royal lineage of Akahinui of Maui.
Hawaiian Sovereignty Elections Council
HSEC was created to facilitate aprocess for the Hawaiian people to determine whether a sovereignHawaiian government will be created and what form it might take. The "Native Hawaiian Vote" held in 1996 asked the question by mail out ballot: "Shall the Hawaiian people elect delegates to propose a native Hawaiian Government?" 73% of returned ballots voted "Yes."
UH Center for Hawaiian Studies
Introduction, list of courses, essays, and other information
Navigation in the Information Age
An Exploration of the Potential Use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Sustainability and Self-Determination in Hawai`i
Roles of Non-Hawaiians in the Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement
A Political Science Masters Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Division of the University of Hawai'i, August 1996, By Anthony Castanha
The Blount Report
Part of the U.S. House Foreign Relations Committee Report of 1894, officially titled "Affairs in Hawaii" prepared by Representative James Blount, who was sent by Pres. Grover Cleveland to assess conditions in Hawaii after the Kingdom of Hawaii had been forcibly overthrown in 1893. The Blount Report led Pres. Cleveland to condemn the illegal overthrow and call for the restoration of the monarchy. (Note: not all of the report is online yet, but a good portion...)
Hawaii's Last Queen
The American Experience on PBS TV
Monday, January 27, 1997
Includes program transcript, teachers' guide, bibliography, and video ordering information.
Official residence of King Kalakaua from 1882 until his death in 1891and of his sister-successor, Queen Lili`uokalani, until the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893 - now a museum maintained by Friends of `Iolani Palace
Hawaii Books - Sovereignty
Reviews of selected Hawaiian sovereignty books with links to amazon.com for ordering
Unconquerable Rebel : Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics 1880-1903
by Ernest Jr. Andrade, examines Wilcox's political career and his attempts to restore native Hawaiian control of a culture, government, and economy.
General Maui Music Language Plants Voyaging Sovereignty Kaho`olawe
General Hawaii Interactivity Lists Videos Bibliographies Search
Maui Culture Online Main Index
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